Fuel Cells Explained

HELP Design (Hollow Electrodes Loose Plates)

A fuel cell transforms fuel directly into electricity and heat through an electrochemical reaction

A Fuel Cell is

  • A device that generates electricity through an electrochemical reaction which;
    • Features an anode (- pole), cathode (+ pole), and an electrolyte (similar to a battery)
    • Continuously produces electricity when fed with fuel (unlike a battery)
    • Does not burn fuel to generate electricity
    • Functions silently, no noise, no rotating parts nor vibrations
  • Clean and efficient;
    • Produces low- to zero emission power and heat
    • Emissions are water vapor and a reduced amount of carbon dioxide (depending on the fuel)
    • SOFC fuel cells produce electricity with 50-60% electrical efficiency plus useful heat
      • This on average reduces up to 70% CO2 emissions compared to the current electricity grid
      • The high temperature heat is used for hot water (micro-CHP) or absorption cooling
      • Up to 100% emission reduction if biogas or hydrogen are used as a fuel in future grids

Types of Fuel Cells

Low Temperature (60 to 80 degrees celcius):

  • Require highly purified Hydrogen as a fuel
  • Best suitable for start/stop applications or short term operations
  • Lower electrical efficiency and high heat exchange losses
  • Limited amount of operating hours
  • Example: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM)

High Temperature (600 to 1000 degrees celcius):

  • Multi-fuel: Hydrogen, LNG, LPG, biogas, mogas, diesel, etc.
  • Best suited for continuous generation/ operations
  • Highest electrical efficiency and low heat exchange losses
  • Example: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, ceramic materials)

Our ‘HELP SOFC’ positioned

PEM Cell

  • Clean, running on pure hydrogen; no CO2, NOx , fine particles emissions
  • Energy efficiency up to 80%
  • Quiet operations

Generic
SOFC Cell

  • High temperature; internal reforming of fuels is risky in monolithic stacks
  • Multi-fuel; traditional fuels, Hydrogen, Bio-fuels and synthetic fuels => ”An ideal Energy Transition Tool”
  • Up to 3 times more efficient compared to petrol combustion engine
  • 10% More efficient than PEM cells
  • Instant reversible; 70% power-to-power (round trip) efficiency
      (versus PEM 30-40%). Therefore ideal “Enabler for Peak shaving”
  • 3x less emission (3 x efficient), negative emissions possible with bio-fuels and CO2 recovery
  • Quite operations

Circonica
‘HELP SOFC’

Same advantages as an Generic SOFC fuel cell plus the following:

  • Unique production technology (HELP), ready for mass production at low costs
  • Mono material ceramics enables easy recycling
  • No high temperature limits; hollow electrode enables safe internal reforming
  • Enables decentral applications; “Internet of Power” and distributed energy solutions at places where there is no grid